With the development of optical fiber communication technology and the breeding of the market for many years, FTTH has entered the practical stage, and all countries have begun to build large-scale FTTH networks. With its unique flat structure and low price, fiber optic drop cable has become the mainstream product of the user introduction segment in the FTTH network.
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Table of Content
- Chapter1: What is fiber optic drop cable?
- Chapter2: What is Aramid Fiber Reinforced Core 8-shaped fiber optic drop cable？
- Chapter3: Fiber optic drop cable index detection test requirements
- Chapter4: Site survey before installation of fiber optic drop cable
- Chapter5: Requirements for FTTH Outdoor Optical Fiber Drop Cable
- Chapter6: Technical requirements for installation and deployment of fiber optic drop cables in different outdoor environments
- Chapter7: Deployment and installation of FTTH Outdoor Optical Fiber Drop Cable in distributed residential buildings
- Chapter8: Installation and laying of fiber optic drop cable in residential concentrated area
- Chapter9: Layout of FTTH Outdoor Optical Fiber Drop Cable in old residential buildings with wireless channels and dark pipes
- Chapter10: Current Situation and Improvement Measures of Optical Cable Engineering Construction
- Chapter11: Summarize
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What is fiber optic drop cable?
The scientific name of fiber optic drop cable is the butterfly drop cable for access network, which is divided into fiber optic drop cable for indoor use and fiber optic drop cable for outdoor use.
The fiber optic drop cable used indoors is called indoor hanging wiring optical cable, and the fiber optic drop cable used outdoors is a self-supporting fiber optic drop cable.
Compared with the ordinary fiber optic drop cable, the self-supporting fiber optic drop cable adds a thick steel wire hanging wire in structure, and the rest of the structure remains unchanged.
Fiber optic drop cables are divided into single-core and double-core structures according to different structures.
The shape is mainly square, in a figure-8 shape, with an optical fiber in the middle, and a metal or non-metallic structure is used on both sides to strengthen the core in parallel.
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What is Aramid Fiber Reinforced Core 8-shaped fiber optic drop cable？
The utility model relates to a figure-8 fiber optic drop cable with an aramid fiber reinforced core.
The core is made of G657 optical fiber, the sheath is made of environmentally friendly flame retardant PE material, and the entire structure is 8-shaped.
It is not only light in weight, resistant to breakage, can be bent with a small radius, flame retardant, withstand voltage, anti-magnetic and electric interference, but also has good light-conducting properties, especially suitable for household/indoor integrated wiring.
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Drop cable index detection test requirements
After purchasing the fiber optic drop cable, you must first check the overall winding condition of the fiber optic drop cable, check whether the outer surface of the fiber optic drop cable is damaged, whether there is extrusion, stretching deformation, and whether the two ends are not tightly closed and wrapped;
Check whether the model of the fiber optic drop cable accepted and the specifications of the FTTH Outdoor Optical Fiber Drop Cable meet the relevant construction requirements;
Check and accept the outer packaging of each fiber optic drop cable; measure the actual skin length of the fiber optic drop cable; test the fiber optic drop cable and make relevant test records.
If it is found that the characteristics and test indicators of the optical cable do not meet the requirements, or the packaging layer of the fiber optic drop cable is seriously damaged, it must be stopped and reported to the relevant departments.
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Site survey before installation of Fiber Drop Cable
With the development of optical fiber to the home, the optical fiber network laying environment presents complex and diversified characteristics. The construction of optical fiber network infrastructure has become an important part of the industrial information field. With the increasing popularity of fiber-to-the-home, its clearer imaging function, higher transmission bandwidth, longer transmission distance and lower maintenance cost have become the main directions of development. However, the wiring of the fiber optic drop cable to the home has a cumbersome construction process.
It is very important to ensure the construction quality of FTTH Outdoor Optical Fiber Drop Cable in a complex environment, and it is also an issue that must be paid attention to during construction and maintenance.
Before the construction of the project, it is necessary to organize the relevant engineering and technical personnel to conduct a detailed survey of the construction site, to ensure that the size of the fiber optic drop cable displayed on the design and construction drawings is consistent with the length of the site, and to confirm whether the installation route of the optical cable at the construction site is safe, convenient, and convenient. Easy to install.
If there is a more suitable route on site, it is recommended to change the design and construction plan, and meet the construction requirements of beautiful laying and ensuring safety according to the specific location of the equipment installed on site.
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Requirements for FTTH Outdoor Optical Fiber Drop Cable
Before construction, the fiber optic drop cable laying project to be constructed should be measured on the spot, and a reasonable laying route should be selected, combined with the drawings, and erected according to the actual length of the optical cable.
When setting up the fiber optic drop cable, according to the actual situation of each cable reel of the existing fiber optic drop cable, the fiber optic drop cable can be accurately distributed.
After distribution, the fiber optic drop cable should be laid as a whole, and a certain length should be reserved for each section.
There should be no joints in the middle of the fiber optic drop cable. Try not to artificially increase or reduce the laying length of the fiber optic drop cable, and do not waste the fiber optic drop cable.
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Technical requirements for installation and deployment of Fiber Drop Cables in different outdoor environments
According to the different parts of the network, fiber optic drop cables are divided into indoor optical cables and outdoor optical cables. The outdoor fiber optic drop cable is a self-supporting fiber optic drop cable, and the indoor fiber optic drop cable is a common fiber optic drop cable.
The fiber optic drop cable should be laid with a pay-off car to avoid twisting, bending and extrusion. When laying the fiber optic drop cable, a special person should be assigned to take care of it at the corner of the fiber optic drop cable or where the remaining cables are stacked.
During the erection of the fiber optic drop cable, a margin should be reserved for every long distance or when crossing obstacles, and the U-shaped bend should be used to leave a margin for expansion and contraction caused by changes in the optical cable and possible interruptions near obstacles.
When the fiber optic drop cable is erected at high altitude, it will encounter the problem of long span. At this time, a support rod should be installed in the middle to avoid the stretching, breaking and sagging of the fiber optic drop cable caused by the long laying distance, which will affect the fiber optic drop cable. properties of the cable.
The minimum bending radius must be guaranteed for the laying of the fiber optic drop cable. When the fiber optic drop cable moves greatly, the effective bending radius of the optical cable should be greater than 15 times the radius of the optical cable, and should not be less than 20 times during the specific construction process.
The construction of the fiber optic drop cable should be straight, without damage and twist.
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Deployment and installation of FTTH Outdoor Optical Fiber Drop Cable in distributed residential buildings
It is located in remote, low population density and scattered residential buildings, and the laying distance of fiber optic drop cable is relatively large. The laying and installation of fiber optic drop cable is mostly by FTTH Outdoor Optical Fiber Drop Cable overhead or along the exterior wall of existing residential buildings. For laying, the wall of the outdoor building shall be fixed with nails.
When the fiber optic drop cable is laid in overhead construction, a tight hoop should be used, a tight hoop splint should be installed, a pull hook should be fixed on the pole, the self-hanging wire of the outer fiber optic drop cable should be separated and stripped, and the hanging wire should be tied and fixed according to the construction process. On the accessories, pull and fix them on the tension hook and leave a margin. The optical cable suspension wire and the remaining long fiber optic drop cable should be carefully bandaged with the longitudinal wrapping tube.
When the fiber optic drop cable is laid out with a distance of more than 100 m, the starting point should be selected at the middle point, which is convenient for long-distance stretching and avoids characteristic degradation.
When laying out the fiber optic drop cable, the self-hanging steel strand of the FTTH Outdoor Optical Fiber Drop Cable must be tightened so that it can bear all the tensile force, but it should be noted that the tensile force of the fiber optic drop cable cannot exceed the rated tensile force value calibrated by itself. , generally can not exceed the bearable span of 50 m, and fix the self-hoisting steel strand according to the technical requirements.
If the fiber optic drop cable crosses with other cables or fFTTH Outdoor Optical Fiber Drop Cable during the construction process, high-voltage insulating tape and insulating sleeve should be used to isolate and wrap the construction fiber optic drop cable for protection, or avoid the crossing position.
In the process of nailing and laying the fiber optic drop cable along the outer wall of the residential building, moderate expansion screws can be used to fix the iron hook on the surface of the outer wall. Note that the fixed iron hook should be in the same direction as the cable.
Separate the self-hanging steel strand of the outdoor optical cable, and tie the self-hanging steel strand to the fixed retractor according to the technical requirements. The optical cable hanging wire and the remaining length of the fiber optic drop cable should be carefully tied to the fixing part with a longitudinal cover. bandage.
During construction, carefully wrap the FTTH Outdoor Optical Fiber Drop Cable’s fiber optic cable and hanging wire separation point for 3 turns with waterproof insulating tape, and fix it firmly for protection.
The fiber optic drop cable laid outdoors should be fixed with screw buckles. When encountering wall corners and corners that need to be bent, a certain margin must be reserved to make a U-shaped bend to ensure that the laid fiber optic drop cable maintains the original characteristics and bending radius. And use casing and insulating tape to wrap for effective protection.
The fiber optic drop cable should be laid at right angles to avoid right-angle bends, and should have a compliant bending radius.
When FTTH Outdoor Optical Fiber Drop Cable is laid along the outer wall of the building, if the electronic isolation method is adopted, strip the self-hanging steel strand of the outdoor fiber optic drop cable from the hanging wire by 30 cm, and carefully wrap the self-supporting hanging wire of the optical cable in the spacer. Electronically, after winding 3 to 4 turns, use a single-strand cable tie to tightly wrap 5 to 6 turns of the suspension wire from the optical cable, pull the cable tie tightly, and then fold it back to the back of the electronic separator, and use the cable tie to continue to wrap the suspension wire tightly for 5 to 6 turns. After 6 laps, cut off the remaining wire, leave a U-bend allowance and fix it with staples.
Since the fiber optic drop cable has a metal drop wire unit, it is more resistant to tension. After laying in an overhead way outdoors, cut off the metal hanging wire unit before entering the house and fix it on a special fixture. After stripping the metal hanging wire, the remaining optical cable is introduced into the room with a fiber optic drop cable.
After entering the house, peel off the outer sheath, water blocking material and reinforcement, and directly use the fiber optic drop cable in the middle for indoor wiring.
The outdoor fiber optic drop cable has all the characteristics of indoor wiring, avoiding the need to connect the outdoor and indoor optical cables.
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Installation and laying of Fiber Drop Cable in residential concentrated area
The newly built residential buildings are all laid with pipes during the construction process, and the construction and laying of fiber optic drop cables should be laid with pipe threaders.
When passing the fiber optic drop cable into the pipe, if the pipe is not smooth and has many bends, talc powder and some lubricating materials can be used to reduce the frictional resistance of the fiber optic drop cable.
In the vertical pipe, according to the pipe diameter, multiple fiber optic drop cables can be inserted and placed at the same time at one time. From the optical diversity distribution box to the home user optical terminal box, the fiber optic drop cable must be laid separately, try to use a pre-buried pipe, and cannot be shared with other cables.
After slowly pulling the fiber optic drop cable out of the pulling-out tube hole with a tube threader, you must carefully check whether the fiber optic drop cable section is damaged.
After repeated confirmation, if any damage is found, the fiber optic drop cable through the tube must be withdrawn, and the cause must be analyzed and reintroduced after corresponding treatment.
After confirming that the part led out of the fiber optic drop cable is intact, reserve a suitable length of the fiber optic splicing pigtail and cut off the fiber optic drop cable. Note that the FTTH Outdoor Optical Fiber Drop Cable cannot be left too short.
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Layout of FTTH Outdoor Optical Fiber Drop Cable in old residential buildings with wireless channels and dark pipes
According to the actual situation of the residential building construction site, carefully select the fiber optic drop cable routing route of the residential building.
Under normal circumstances, the fiber optic drop cable is fixed on the wall, and it is placed on the top of the wall, which is relatively hidden and difficult to reach. Choose a safe and stable position that is not easily damaged by external forces.
The fiber optic drop cable should be fastened indoors with special wiring clips, and the fastened screws should be used outdoors. During the process of laying the fiber optic drop cable along the outer wall of the building, it should be fixed with staples, and the spacing between them should be one nail every 40 cm.
When nailing, avoid hurting the fiber optic drop cable. When laying the fiber optic drop cable through the wall, a protective tube should be used to protect it. During construction, it is necessary to avoid the fiber optic drop cable from being knocked, to avoid twisting, bending, etc. Damage such as knots.
In order to make the construction safe and standard, it is advisable to choose the way of laying line pipes and laying line troughs, and select the appropriate routing route.
The wiring is made by laying the wire tube, the wire tube can be made of flame-retardant rigid PVC, and the outer diameter of the wire tube is selected according to the number of optical fibers. The fiber optic drop cable should be laid on the top of the wall that is relatively concealed and difficult to reach, and a pass-through box should be installed at the intersection of the laying ducts. When routing conduits in each unit of a residential building, you should choose to install a pass-through box at the unit entrance.
When there are two or more 90° bends in the horizontal and vertical directions, a pass-through box is required. Routing conduits should be secured with pipe clamps. The route through which the line pipe is routed is at the concave and convex parts and corners of the laying building. The line pipe needs to be bent to a corresponding degree and then fixed and installed. The bend of the line pipe must meet the minimum bending radius of the fiber optic drop cable, so as to ensure the characteristics of the optical cable, reduce the loss, and make the fiber optic drop cable. The optic drop cable can be put on and put on smoothly.
The laying of the FTTH Outdoor Optical Fiber Drop Cable in the passing box does not require any excess length, but only needs to meet the technical requirements of the bending radius of the fiber optic drop cable.
Use wall trunking for wiring. Under the condition of not affecting safety and beautiful construction, you should try to follow the edge of the wall, skirting line, etc., choose a route with a smooth wall surface and few turning angles, and use strong double-sided Tape wire slot, easy to lay fiber optic drop cable.
The laying of the fiber optic drop cables in the straight line grooves should be smooth and should not be crossed, and the fiber optic drop cables laid in the line grooves should be bound and effectively fixed at the turns and in and out of the line grooves;
Fiber optic drop cables should be fixed at intervals of 1 m inside the vertically laid wire troughs. According to the actual situation of the on-site construction and the routing of the wire troughs, the wire troughs should be properly combined. The trunking cover and bottom groove should be cut together.
If a hole needs to be made in the wall, appropriate tools and drill bits of corresponding specifications should be selected according to the material of the wall and the position and size of the opening. In order to ensure the beauty of the opening, the inner wall should be equipped with a wall decorative cover at the wall hole, and a wall sleeve should be inserted into the wall hole.
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Current Situation and Improvement Measures of Optical Cable Engineering Construction
In the fiber optic drop cable project, whether it is before, during or after the construction, there may be problems that affect the quality of the project. Therefore, it is necessary to do a good job in every link of the construction process and strengthen the preparations before the project. To ensure the overall construction quality of the project and facilitate future maintenance and use.
But for now, there are more or less problems in many projects, which need to be avoided.
(1) Environmental issues. When laying overhead or buried in the ground, it should be fully considered that the optical cable will be continuously eroded by the external environment, and problems such as corrosion and water ingress may occur, especially in the north, where the weather is cold in winter, and the buried optical cable may freeze due to the flooding of the pipeline. The problem affects the stability of FTTH Outdoor Optical Fiber Drop Cable transmission.
(2) The details were not paid attention to during the construction of the project, and the optical cable trenches were not cleaned in detail and comprehensively, and some sundries remained, resulting in damage to the outer skin of the optical cable.
(3) The construction personnel have the problem of irregular operation or brutal construction, which occurs from time to time during the construction of the optical cable. Brutal construction operations will damage the optical cable to varying degrees.
(4) The FTTH Outdoor Optical Fiber Drop Cable test is not tested one by one as required. If there is a passive slowdown in the test work, ignoring some blind spots will leave serious hidden dangers in future use, resulting in failure of the line after being put into use, and it is necessary to find and rework part or all of it.
To improve the construction quality of optical cable engineering, the following effective measures can be adopted.
(1) Improve the professional quality and professionalism of construction personnel, and avoid serious quality problems during the construction process, resulting in rework.
(2) The materials and equipment used in the construction of the optical cable project must ensure the quality, and the function and sophistication of the equipment must be technical and professional. Only in this way can the quality of the construction be ensured.
(3) The construction technology and construction methods used in the optical cable project are constantly changing with the emergence of new materials, new equipment and new technologies. Only under the premise of complying with the construction technology standards are constantly innovating, exploring some new methods, and researching new technologies. The construction quality of the project can be guaranteed only by adapting to the new construction technology and adapting to new materials and new technologies.
(4) After the completion of the construction of the optical cable project, the relevant personnel should check the completion materials in time, and review them one by one according to the acceptance data, especially pay attention to the quality acceptance of the concealed projects, and make detailed records to facilitate future maintenance.
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When installing and laying fiber optic drop cables in different indoor and outdoor environments, the construction unit must construct in accordance with the technological process, and should comprehensively consider and take precautions against various factors affecting the quality of the project, and carry out precise control according to the construction points.
Pay close attention to the three links in the early, middle and late stages of the project construction, and actively take various effective measures to control the quality of the project construction.
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