What is a Coax Connector?
Coaxial cable, or Coax Connector, is a specific kind of electrical cable that has an inner conductor and a concentric conducting shield separated by an insulating layer; many coaxial cables also include a protective outer sheath or jacket.
Note that to be considered “coaxial,” the inner conductor and the outer shield must lie along the same geometric axis.
Coaxial cable is a transmission line that is typically used to transmit electrical signals at high frequencies with minimal signal degradation. Its many uses include telecommunications, high-speed computing, networking, and data transfer, and radio.
Moreover, the cable and connection diameters are precisely calibrated to maintain a constant conductor spacing, setting it apart from other shielded cables in its ability to act as a transmission line.
Additionally, different types of coaxial cables can be recognized from one another by their gauge and impedance. The gauge of a cable is designated by its Radio Guide, or RG, number; larger numbers denote thinner conducting cores.
TV Cable Connector Types
The RCA Plug and Jack
Most consumer electronics use RCA cables for audio/video connections since it is the most widely available connector type.
It’s hardly the best connector in the world, but it’s usually the one we have to work with because that’s what the equipment manufacturers provided. Yellow RCA ports are typically used for composite video inputs or outputs. If there is only one RCA jack on the back of your device and it says “video” or something similar, you probably have a composite.
The three RCA plugs used to transmit component video are often colored green (Y, or Luminance), blue (Pb), and red (Pr). Typically, but not always, the colors red, green, blue, yellow (horizontal sync), and white make up the RGBHV color space (vertical sync).
If your device has both RGBHV and Y/Pb/Pr labels, it can display either color space when utilizing all five connections or Y/Pb/Pr when using only three.
The BNC Plug and Jack
The BNC connector is the industry standard for carrying video signals and may now be found on many pieces of high-end consumer equipment.
Similar to the RCA, it will specify whether it supports composite video (one connection), Y/C s-video (two connections), Y/Pb/Pr (three connections), or some variation of RGB. For whatever reason, both male and female BNC connections feature what appears to be a pin in the center, leading many people to mistake the female connector for a male one.
However, a female BNC’s “pin” is actually a receptacle for the male pin, as will become clear upon closer inspection. It is guaranteed that a BNC connector on a panel will be female, while BNC connectors on cables will almost always be male such as our breakout adapters, which have female BNCs to join with standard cable-mount male BNCs.
Most antenna and cable TV hookups are of the screw-on variety, and use what is called an F-connector.
F-connectors are typically only used for radio frequency connections, however in the past they were also utilized as digital audio connections on select laser disk players.
The 4-pin mini-DIN Plug
Most consumer electronics use a four-pin mini-DIN connector for s-video output, which is a terrible choice for video.
The device has a bad habit of unplugging itself at the least prodding, and its diminutive size necessitates the use of miniature video cable to fit two coaxes into the cable entrance hole.
That said, it is instantly recognized, which is at least something.
The HD15 / mini dSub 15 / VGA connector
More and more gadgets are being released with 15-pin connectors, which go by as many different names as there are pins.
The most common moniker is “VGA” because this connector is used with most personal computer monitors. However, this usage is a little unclear given that VGA is an RGBHV-type video transmission and the same socket is used for RGBHV, RGBS, RGB sync-on-green, and Y/Pb/Pr Component video.
It’s crucial to know what kind of video a device with a 15-pin connector can output or receive before attempting to use it, as the socket is compatible with a wide variety of video standards.
There are several varieties of DVI Connectors, however the two most common areDVI-I and DVI-D.
A DVI-I connector is distinguished from a DVI connector by the presence of additional pins at one end, which are responsible for transmitting the bulk of the analog video signal. DVI-I cables have both digital and analog pins, so they can carry either type of signal.
Be sure that the cable you purchase is compatible with the devices you already have, as a DVI-D socket is typically not equipped to accept the analog pins found on a DVI-I connector.
f Type Connector
The F connector is a coaxial RF connector used in a variety of applications, including “over the air” terrestrial TV, cable TV, and virtually all satellite TV and cable modem connections.
Eric E. Winston, while working at Jerrold Electronics on the development of cable television in the early 1950s, invented the F connector. For low-cost, gender-specific, threaded compression of radio frequency signals, the F connection is hard to beat. It has usable bandwidth up to multiple GHz and a reasonable 75 impedance match at frequencies more than 1 GH].
The standard thread size for mating connectors is 3/8-32UNEF. The center conductor can be inserted into a receptacle on the female connector’s side. The male connector features an interior threaded captive nut and a central pin.
To keep costs down, practically all of the cable ends are designed to be male. Pin is formed by the central conductor of the coaxial cable, and the dielectric of the cable covers the whole connector mating face.
Therefore, the male connection only has to worry about two things: the body, which is crimped onto or screwed over the cable shielding braid, and the captive nut, which does not need to be precise. There is also a push-on variety.
Female connections are commonly used as couplers or on bulkheads, and are fastened using the same threads as the connectors themselves. They can be produced as a whole, including the dielectric and center sockets, at a plant where tight tolerances can be maintained.
The surface characteristics of the inner conductor play a crucial role in this design.
Coaxial Cable Connector Types
The Bayonet Neil-Concelman (BNC) coaxial connector is a miniature-to-subminiature radio frequency (RF) connector used for fast connection and disconnection in RF devices, test instruments, radio, TV, and video signals.
Since the mechanical durability of BNC connectors degrades at frequencies beyond 10 GHz, they are best used at lower frequencies (4 GHz). The female end of a BNC connector features two bayonet lugs that allow for a twisting interaction.
If you need a connector that works well at microwave frequencies but has threads, look no further than the Threaded Neil-Concelman.
TNC Connectors are small, waterproof components that can handle frequencies up to 12 GHz, making them ideal for use in cellular phone and RF/antenna connections where leakage and instability are common problems.
Comparable electrical performance from DC to 4 GHz is provided by subminiature version B connectors, which are physically smaller than SMA connectors.
For semi-rigid cables with occasional connections, the SMB connector is one of the most popular RF/microwave connector variants used in industrial and telecommunications equipment due to its straightforward snap-on coupling design.
For high-power cellular network, antenna system, and military applications, the 7/16 DIN threaded RF connector is the way to go.
Using a wrench, you can get it to a snug fit at frequencies up to 7.5 GHz. Both the female inner contact and the overall outside contact on this connector are 7 millimeters in diameter, hence the name. The outer contact measures 16 millimeters.
The internal architecture of QMA connections is identical to that of SMA connectors, the standard for RF connectors.
QMA connectors are great for industrial and communications uses, as well as cable wiring, assembly, and maintenance because of its quick and secure coupling and high-quality RF connection performance.
Micro coaxial connectors have a compact form factor and are therefore well suited for uses where there are constraints on size, weight, or both.
MCX connectors have a 30% smaller outside diameter than SMB connectors and are used in WLAN, GPS, TV tuner cards, RF hardware, and digital cellular applications operating at frequencies between DC and 6 GHz. A snap-on coupling mechanism is used in MCX connectors to make installation quick and easy without the need for any tools.
Although the Radio Corporation of America connector (or cinch connector) was initially developed for the transmission of audio signals, it is now also commonly used for video.
These cables are the red, white, and yellow cords that typically plug into the back of televisions and are sometimes referred to as A/V jacks. A male connector is encircled by a ring on each of these cables.